Lazar Markovich Lissitzky, more commonly known as El Lissitzky, was born on 23rd November 1890. He was a Russian artist, photographer, polemicist, typographer, designer and architect. He is most well-known for his exhibition displays and propaganda work for the Soviet Union. “His work greatly influenced the Bauhaus and constructivist movements, and he experimented with production techniques and stylistic devices that would go on to dominate 20th century graphic design” (El Lissitzky).
El Lissitzky developed a lot of different architectural and artistic findings during his time. Many of which were quite fascinating, resulting in suprematism, proun and horizontal skyscrapers. Suprematism is characterised by geometric forms, some of these may include but are not limited to circles, squares, lines and rectangles, these forms are most often painted in a limited range of colours. The image to the right was created in either 1915 or 1916 and was named Dynamic Suprematism. It was included in an exhibition by the name of 0.10 which consisted of thirty-five abstract paintings. “Suprematism was one of the key movements of modern art in Russia and was particularly closely associated with the revolution” (Suprematism).
Proun is a large exhibition of paintings, prints and drawings which were created between 1919 and 1927. “Lissitzky’s radical reconception of space and material is a metaphor for and visualisation of the fundamental transformations in society that he thought would result from the Russian Revolution” (Bequest K 2010). The image to the left, is one of the artworks featured in his exhibition, it was created using oil, varnish, crayon, coloured papers, sandpaper, graph paper and metal foil. It has many different components to it and creates quite a busy piece of art.
Horizontal skyscrapers were first developed in 1923 by El Lissitzky. They were named Wolkenbugel which is translated to cloud-irons. It consists of eight structures that are “intended to mark the major intersections of the Boulevard Ring in Moscow” (Horizontal Skyscrapers 2013). Each of these iron clouds were flat, three story, L-shaped slab that was raised approximately 50 metres above street level. The image to the right is the design of the horizontal skyscrapers and as they were intentionally made to all be identical in shape and height, each building was a different colour, so people were able to distinguish what each building was for.
El Lissitzky created a lot of unique things, such as artworks and architectural buildings and his work would go on to dominate the 20th century graphic design.
The word Bauhaus translates to ‘construction house’, it originated as a school of the arts in Germany in the early 20th Century. It was founded by Walter Gropius. It was created to combine life, craft and art under the same roof. Walter Gropius created the school to ‘make art a social concern during the post-war upheaval’ (100 years of Bauhaus). The school had many well-known artists such as Josef Albers, Wassily Kandinsky and Paul Klee. The Bauhaus school had so many different elements within it, that students were able to learn skills such as metal work, cabinet making, pottery and so much more.
One of the artworks which was created by Paul Klee in 1922, named Red Balloon, creates a sense of geometric compositional arrangements, allowing for the piece to flow together in a simplistic manner. The artwork features a sense of clustering with a small sense of negative space. In saying that, there is no real negative space as the artwork provides depth all throughout and creates a pattern of lighter and darker colours. There are so many different compositional elements within this one piece of artwork, it would take some time to write about them all but in saying that, it is a beautiful piece of artwork that reflects a “visual rhythm, conducted by vertical, horizontal and diagonal lines, that seems both ordered and spontaneous” (The Art Story).
Swiss Style which was designed in the 1920s, is also known as the International Typographic Style. It “is often characterised by highly structured layout and sans-serif typefaces that attempt to achieve a clear, legible and harmonious design” (Swiss Modernism). The style seems to emphasise on cleanliness, objectivity and readability using asymmetric layouts such as grids and sans-serif typefaces. Majority of the artwork featured in Swiss Modernism consists of text-based art, some of these artworks do have elements of graphics but most often, it is text.
This artwork is a part of the book called Neue Grafik, which is an influential journal on graphic design, and it was published in 1958 – 1965 by Josef Muller-Brockmann, Richard Paul Lohse, Hans Neuburg and Carlo Vivarelli. The book is made up of three languages and is said to be “the bible for the International Typographic Style” (Swiss Modernism). The book itself uses a wide range of compositional components but its most definitive component would its use of arrangements. Every page has a perfectly set out design to attract readers and display the most important pieces. It also contains a lot of white space, but for the concept of the book and the influence this journal is trying to have on its audience, it has been pleasantly set out.
William Tyrrell was just a 3-year-old boy when he mysteriously vanished on the morning of 12th September 2014, in the small town of Kendall, NSW. It was first responded to by NSW Police as a missing person until the boy had not been located in surrounding bushland within a couple of weeks, it then turned into a crime scene and was said to be “heading down the path of abduction or something more sinister” (Nowhere Child 2019).
Social media plays a major role in presenting information to the public in the most efficient way possible. It also is a really effective method when trying to receive information for absolutely anything, this could include, missing persons, stolen property, assaults, etc. There are approximately 2.95 billion people on social media which stands the question, ‘someone must know something’. This role of social media in the reporting of crimes is major in two examples; the case of William Tyrrell and the case of Madeleine McCann. We will be looking at the William Tyrrell case mostly with elements from the Madeleine McCann case to show the similarities
As the reporting of the events began on the morning on the 12th September 2014, we see that not a lot of detail had been given in regard to the case of missing child, William Tyrrell. The article by ABC states that “William Tyrrell was last seen at half-past ten this morning in the front yard of his home in Kendall” but this statement is false, the house was his foster grandmothers house. As the reporting continues day by day, we see much more detail being announced as it becomes clearer of the details of the case.
On the 15th of September 2014, reports start to begin to acknowledge this could be more than just a missing child, numbers involved in the search have become larger as they move from just the neighbourhood, police and SES to up to 300 people.
When Gary Jubelin became lead investigator of the William Tyrrell case, we see a major increase in the amount of social media attention given to the case. A Facebook page called ‘Where’s William Tyrrell? Bring Him Home – Official’ was developed by a PR company called Insight Communications which is run by Alice and Clare Collins to bring more attention to his case, and to hopefully get it across to those who may know something, as well as to keep all of those following the case, up to date on any details found. As the years have progressed with no sign of William Tyrrell, the page has still been updated with posters of him and little things that relate to missing children. This is beneficial in allowing people to not forget about him and continue the search for him.
As the years began to go by, the reporting of the case becomes less prevalent in the news but continues to have an active status on social media as it is easier for people to get the word across by liking, commenting and sharing content. This use of social media also allows for the case to be seen by a wider range of audience and also allows for quicker access to the latest updates. The case of William Tyrrell at this stage has haltered due to COVID-19 but with an inquest due to go ahead in October, hopefully the inquiry will come up with new leads and new answers to so many unanswered questions.
Another case that is and has been really prevalent in the media from the moment it began is the case of Madeleine McCann. She was only 3 years old when she went missing in Portugal on the 3rd of May 2007. Madeleine’s parents Gerry and Kate have always been public about Madeleines disappearance, this has definitely made more of an impact on her case as the story has been globally broadcasted. With this, the McCanns have had quite a lot of criticism in regard to the amount of attention they have brought to the case, “Gerry and I have been criticised at times for publicising Madeleine’s disappearance. We did what we felt was best at the time” (Madeleines fund). The day after her disappearance, The Guardian’s Mark Oliver, reported on the case explaining the circumstances and facts of the case with ‘Toddler’s parents fear Algarve abduction’ article.
Social media allows for us to connect in many different ways and it is also an essential part of communicating. These communications on social media help to get points across and a lot of the time, the Police or people in need turn to social media to ask for assistance. As discussed in this explainer, William Tyrrell and Madeleine McCann have both been majorly public in the attention of the case by being very active on social media. Therefore, it can be understood that social media is an ever-growing platform and a very useful platform in regard to assistance with crimes and other major activities.
Overington C 2019, Nowhere Child, podcast, 12 July 2019 – 29 Feb 2020, The Australian,
no author 2015, ‘William Tyrrell: Timeline of boy’s disappearance in September 2014’, ABC News, 2 March, viewed June 1 2020,
The article “From Batman to Watchmen, the masks superheroes wear tell us a lot about ourselves” by Dr Darren C Fisher, is an opinion piece that explains how most superheroes we were brought up with created an identity different from their own true persona. “These personas help us to blend in, to project an ideal ‘self’, and to relate to others (Fisher, 2019). These ‘masks’ also allowed for the heroes to be easily identified by the public and they also were able to keep their real life identity under wrap.
With revealing the identities of the masked heroes we come to understand that the world is forever changing and it is becoming more accepting of those that are “different”. A good example of this is shown within the article when it talks about the new Joker film and how his true identify is known from the beginning of the film. The Joker character “traditionally a villain in the genre, has become something of a symbol of the common man’s modern day struggle” (Fisher, 2019). This “struggle” that they speak about is definitely more powerful in the new Joker film if you are comparing it to the earlier superhero movies where their struggles are still significant but don’t have the overall impact the new Joker film had on its audience.
In regards to audience, the article seems to be more aimed towards the audience that watches and is familiar to the superhero genre of films. They would be able to relate more to the examples and understand the progression of the unveiling of the masked heroes throughout the different films that were produced. It could also be aimed towards a more of a general public as well as a lot of people act differently around different groups of people, creating a different persona/identity when in different situations.
The article seems to use various forms of media but does not necessarily promote the article as it seemed to only be promoted by the online ABC News website and by Dr Darren C Fisher himself when he promoted it through his social media platform, Twitter. It would have created more of an impact if it was printed or promoted across multiple social media platforms. In saying that though, the article was well set out with images and subtitles being used to break up the text.
The article also contained a video, The Watchmen trailer to promote the mistrust of masks which was also evident in hyperlinks to bring your attention to other examples of the mistrust of masks as well as taking you to stories that are of similar nature.
The superheroes we see today are shaped by “the changing pressures of a modernising world”(Fisher, 2019) and if “we continue to look to popular culture, knowing that if we look hard enough, we might just see an accurate reflection of ourselves” (Fisher, 2019).
A not for profit organisation is working across the
Illawarra and Shoalhaven area to decrease the rate of homelessness.
SASSHI stands for Supported Accommodation & Homelessness
Services Shoalhaven Illawarra and is an organisation that focuses mainly on
women and children who are experiencing homelessness.
The organisation has six sites across the Illawarra and
Shoalhaven area with five of those sites accommodating women and children
whereas the crisis accommodation sites are mainly used for women who have fled
from a domestic violence situation and require accommodation assistance.
The business development officer for SASSHI, Jacqui Brooker explained
that these women “benefit from keeping them safe immediately and also with
domestic abuse we provide that safety planning support as well, it’s keeping
women safe but also benefiting from the long-term aspect of supporting women
into safe homes and empowering them and building their confidence and
independents so that they can maintain and sustain those safe homes”.
Homelessness is a growing epidemic, with over 116,000 people
experiencing homelessness in Australia. This is due to a number of reasons, one
of the main reasons is the affordability of housing.
Jacqui mentioned the Sydney epidemic and also mentioned that
“the affordability of housing has just gone through the roof and anyone who is
on any type of pension, there is less than 1% of affordable rental properties
Within SASSHI, they run programs such as start safely, where
“if you are fleeing domestic violence and you want a private rental, the
government will subsidise that private rental for the first three years”.
Jacqui explained that homelessness “doesn’t discriminate”
and it does not matter if you lost your job, a loved one, had a relationship
breakdown, domestic violence or any other factor, it only takes one major part
of your life to fall apart and the rest of it comes crumbling down after.
“our front-line staff are really passionate about educating
kids and teenagers on the red flags of domestic violence” said Jacqui in
regards to helping the younger generations understand domestic violence.
Domestic violence case manager for SASSHI, Paula Saiz has “been
in the industry for 20 years” where she was able to make her way up to become a
case manager for women who have fled from domestic violence.
The End of the Line is a globally aware documentary that takes light of the disturbing problems that we should all be aware of. It focuses on over fishing and how these methods of fishing can damage the population of the fish and also the “depletion of our oceans” (Richards, 2018).
The documentary was conducted in the UK by Charles Clover, an
investigative reporter who filmed for two years “from the Straits of Gibraltar
to the coasts of Senegal and Alaska to the Tokyo fish market” (The End of the
Line, 2019). As the documentary is filmed through various locations it shows
the global impact of overfishing and how our consumption and love of seafood
has begun to have devastating effects on fish populations and is causing some popular
species of fish such as bluefin tuna to become extinct. This disruption of a
species has said to “result in huge overpopulation of jellyfish” and also “bring
certain mass starvation and unemployment” (The End of the Line, 2019).
It can be described as “a campaign and wakeup call for
sustainable consumption of fish and for a new ethic of responsible fishing and eating”
(Richards, 2018) as well as “a wake-up call to the world” (The End of the Line,
2019). It also comes together to show how the farming of fish is no longer a
solution for the mass destruction of the bluefin tuna fish. The only solution
to this problem is to create an awareness behind it, and allow for people to
understand the devastating effects of over fishing as well as providing solutions
on how the global community can help to end the over fishing of the endangered
With the production of the film, it was found that “more
than 9 per cent or 4.7million adults in the UK were aware of The End of the
Line” (Levitt and Thomas, 2011). This resulted in people recognising that fish
numbers have dropped and also created an awareness around buying sustainably sourced
Another positive outcome of the film was the fact that
supermarkets responded to the release of the film with them “no longer selling
endangered species like bluefin tuna, switching instead to more sustainable yellowfin
or skipjack species in their tuna products” (Levitt and Thomas, 2011). This response
by supermarkets also led to an increased sale in sustainably sourced fish and
has now created a better awareness towards the sustainability of fish.
In recognition of cultural hybridisation, the effects of
over fishing can be distributed throughout different cultures and as it becomes
a globally aware topic, each culture can deal with the issue in their own
In conclusion, the documentary was able to bring to light
the devastations and future worries of over fishing and was also able to help “for
every single person to take responsibility by not contributing to the further
depletion of our oceans” (Richards, 2018).
I have never been truly aware of the global effect and how
we are all connected through the use of the media until I began the BCM111
subject. It has made me more aware of how global the media is and how different
countries change the media to suit their own unique culture.
I have also begun to notice smaller things to do with cultural diversity, such as in music videos when they use examples of cultures and demonstrate these cultures that aren’t their own, a good example of this is in Coldplay’s, ‘Hymn for the Weekend’. The music video caused a bit of a stir and was accused of cultural appropriation as it includes a few scenes where Beyoncé is dressed in traditional Indian wear and also scenes of a local festival which a lot of people found offensive.
“Coldplay’s myopic construction of India has been part of western representation since the colonial era, but in the past few years, the music industry has embraced it to make their videos more interesting” (Kumar, 2016). This is another key factor in regards to my global capacity as a lot of the music I consume and the music videos that come along with the music help to bring along my global awareness especially if the music clip has global elements.
Another part that makes up my global capacity is when I have
travelled overseas and was able to witness the different cultures first hand. I
have only really personally witnessed the American and Fijian cultures but as I
grow and begin to understand the different cultures I would like to travel more
and create a greater understanding of cultural diversity and how each culture is
viewed from different perspectives. Travelling would also allow for me to witness
the different cultures and how they change things to suit their culture first
Another would be the fact that I watch a lot of global
television series and movies, mostly British and American tv but I also watch
the odd Japanese anime or French film. The French films allow me to practice French
listening skills and to interpret the French language as they speak. French
people tend to speak very fast, so it is a good learning curb to be able to understand
and up with their global culture. The same is with Japanese anime such as Spirited
Away, where you get to understand and learn about their culture and how their
culture is substantially different to ours. You can also see that a lot of different
cultures believe in different things and the way it is conveyed to other countries
is through the use of media.
It really all comes down to the media and online spaces such
as Facebook where you witness different cultures all in the one place and I
believe for a lot of people, social media platforms are the easiest way to
access different global cultures and are a space for us to expand our global
At this day and age, I have noticed a lot of changes within my television schedule and for the most part, it would be that I don’t necessarily watch television these days and most of the ‘television’ I consume is in forms such as Netflix and social media platforms.
When I did consume real television, I would mostly watch the Life channel which consisted of mostly American shows such as fixer upper, house hunters and those kinds of home renovation shows. It would also have some old seasons of The Block Australia and the UK come dine with me. You could also say that I of course watched the morning news but the only real global fact about that was when there would be reports on overseas disasters or big ceremonies such as the royal wedding.
I believe that by watching these US renovation and house
buying shows, it has brought to light the difference in our economies and has
begun to create a sense of interest, in regards to why our housing prices are
so much more expensive then Americas. It has also made me do a bit of research
into the Australian and US economy and I have found that “the US has 13 times
the population of Australia and is the worlds’ largest economy, while Australia
is the worlds’ 14th largest” (Mondschein, 2018). I believe that this
considerable amount of difference has allowed our economic system to be
influenced by overseas vendors and has created a lot of unnatural products
within our country.
This also ties in with global proximity as Australians would
be more inclined to watch the US based television shows such as house hunters
and renovation shows as various materials and pricing are different to Australia
which, therefore creates more of an effect on different global cultures as each
culture has their own economical ways of looking at things.
In regards to watching the morning news, I believe that some of the stories produced by our local reporters could spread to the global screen as we all need to be aware of the countries around us and that is why we have overseas journalists. It would also be fair for other news stations outside of Australia to have overseas journalists within Australia, keeping track of our everyday news as Australia would do the same to them.
In the essence of the global success and or failure of the ‘television’
that I watch, it is believed that only a small amount of the morning news would
be a global success as it is more targeted towards the Australian audience and
would have a greater effect on them then to an overseas audience.
In conclusion, the ‘television’ that we consume varies from
person to person and from country to country as we all have our preferences on
what we like to watch and each global culture has their different stations
which focus on their own unique cultural dynamic.
When speaking about trauma we immediately think of the worst most possible outcome but in some cases, it may be small things that lead to trauma. The experience of trauma can happen at the most unexpected times. It may affect different people in different ways and can lead to mental health issues and fears that the individual had not experienced before.
Trauma can be described as “a serious accident, a physical assault, war, a natural disaster, sexual assault or abuse.” (Beyond Blue, 2019). There are a lot of different ways in which individuals deal with the certain trauma they have witnessed or experienced. Some people may tend to shut down after a traumatic experience where as some keep busy, doing day to day things as to keep their mind off of the trauma that they have experienced.
The trauma that we are describing is recognised in the cases of Madeleine McCann and Lindy Chamberlain. These two cases come together to guide our understanding in the ethical reporting of trauma and allowing for these families to be able to grieve for those they have lost and deal with the trauma they have suffered.
The story of Madeleine McCann
For those of you who haven’t heard of the Madeleine McCann story, here is a little background. The McCann family of five took a vacation to Portugal where they stayed at a resort in Praia da Luz. On the 3rdof May 2007 the vacation for the family took a tragic turn when Kate and Gerry McCann went out to the resort’s tapas bar with friends. Their three children Madeleine (aged 3) and twins, Sean and Amelie (aged 2) were put to bed in their apartment around 8:30pm and were checked on at regular intervals. At around 10pm Kate McCann went to the apartment to do the routine check-up when she discovered Madeleine was no longer in the apartment.
This is how the search for Madeleine McCann began.
Kate and Gerry McCann
The mother and father of Madeleine McCann were grieving in ways we could only ever imagine. The guilt and anxiety of losing a child would have been enough trauma for anyone but the fact that it was such a well-known case in the media, Kate and Gerry had to deal with the press and journalists writing stories that indicated them to be guilty. Headlines such as “Did you sedate Maddie?” (The Disappearance of Madeleine McCann 2019) were one of the many articles posted about Kate and Gerry.
The media was such a big part of that time that rumours and stories started to circulate in the media of what was believed to have happened to the missing three-year-old. Some of these include:
“Burglary gone wrong”
“Abduction by a paedophile”
“kidnapped by slave traders and sold to a rich family”
“Madeleine died in the apartment” (The Week 2019)
The many articles that were posted about Kate and Gerry McCann in regard to them being allegedly guilty were unsatisfied in following the Journalist Code of Ethics which is to “report and interpret honestly, striving for accuracy, fairness and disclosure of all essential facts” (MEAA 2019). Within these articles it can be found that these supposed articles were indeed factual but in reality, they were not.
The Netflix documentary The Disappearance of Madeleine McCann reached out to Kate and Gerry at the start of production to participate in the film but they responded with; “we did not see – and still do not see – how this programme will help the search for Madeleine and, particularly given there is an active police investigation, it could potentially hinder it” (Debnath 2019). This documentary would later fuel the trauma that Kate and Gerry have already experienced and bring back those unwanted comments about who really was involved in the disappearance of Madeleine McCann.
The Journalist Involved in the Documentary
Sandra Felgueiras, a Portuguese news reporter was a feature in the Netflix documentary, The Disappearance of Madeleine McCann. She was “on the ground in the seaside resort as the search began and watched as press coverage grew more intense.” (Debnath 2019).
As Sandra was conducting interviews and trying to get to the bottom of what had happened to Madeleine McCann, she had said that “she had felt lied to by her Portuguese police sources” (NZ Herald 2019), those of which were trying to claim that the evidence towards Kate and Gerry was incriminating.
This deception by the Portuguese police was unsuccessful in convincing Sandra that Kate and Gerry were involved but the same can’t be said about the many other reporters that were present throughout the initial investigation.
The Story of Lindy Chamberlain
The story of Lindy Chamberlain is about “a young life cut short and a mother who fought for justice” (Chamberlain 2019). She went through the trauma of losing her child and being falsely charged with her daughter, Azaria’s death. Let’s now talk about the events that changed this mother’s life and her daughter’s short life.
On Sunday the 17thof August 1980, a 32-year-old mother was on a holiday with her family, staying at Ayers Rock when she went to check up on her sleeping 9-week-old daughter, Azaria, and discovered she was no longer in the tent where she left her and all that was left was the sighting of a dingo and blood inside of her young daughters tent.
This turn of events created a murder trial where Lindy Chamberlain was tried and convicted of murder. The prosecution conducted arguments towards Lindy by saying “Lindy chamberlain took Azaria from the tent into the car, sat in the front passenger seat and cut the baby’s throat” (Staines 2006).
It has been said that the “sensationalist reporting of the event convicted parents Michael and Lindy of their daughter’s murder outside official court processes” (Middleweek 2016).
This traumatic event for Lindy Chamberlain of being convicted for the death of her daughter created a certain strength inside of her which allowed for her to fight the justice system and overturn her convictions. She was successful in this attempt and was awarded “a sum of money for wrongful conviction, intended to cover their legal fees” (Staines 2006). This overturning of her conviction still did not compare to the trauma Lindy Chamberlain would have dealt with in relation to the disappearance of her daughter and her being wrongfully sentenced.
The MEAA Code of Ethics
The MEAA is a journalistic code of ethics which establishes standards that journalists educate themselves on. These codes of conducts allow for journalists to understand how to report on different ethical issues. “Ethical journalism requires conscientious decision-making in context” (MEAA 2019). This statement by the MEAA allows for the journalists of all kinds not just those who reported on the Madeleine McCann case and the Lindy Chamberlain case but also those reporting on cases that may be brought about in the future as well as past cases being brought back up in the media.
A Public sphere is a place where you go to speak about your issues, everyday happenings and general topics. This public sphere also acts as a guide in dealing with these conversations as they help to guide you with your own issues and can also allow you to help others with their issues.
My most recognised public sphere would be social media, specifically snapchat and facebook. I found facebook to be the easiest way to get into contact with my public sphere. Facebook allows you to communicate and keep up with the latest ‘news’ and ‘gossip’ from not only your friends but from many other social aspects, such as celebrities or news stories.
Many of the issues that are faced with dealing with the online world of social media is the rawness of how people are feeling and a lot of the time you wouldn’t come into contact with these feelings that are being shown through the social media platform. In a way it gives them a sense of a barrier between themselves and the person that they are talking to. There is also the issue of differentiating between what the person means when writing a message and the way that you interpret that message, because you can’t see or understand the emotions that are put into a message.
A lot of the cultural and political issues that have been discussed recently within this social media public sphere are the Madeleine McCann case after the release of the Netflix series and the podcasts. This brought about a lot of questions towards the case and whether more could have been done or if the parents of the children were in the wrong. Another issue that also has been risen is the Christchurch attack and what was believed to have been a correct way to deal with it and the gun issues around the world.
The issues about social media is just about everyone can be included in the public sphere as it is such an open environment and can be accessed wherever you go and this can lead to a wide audience boasting their own opinion on an issue.
In saying this, I find it to be a very open public sphere as you are able to hear about other peoples experience of the issue and what they think about it and how they would like to see change in the present and future issues.